Intercultural Development

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Significant research has been central to the development of best practices developing intercultural communication capabilities, understanding of self and positionality. We list these pieces immediately below and offer article abstracts farther down the page. Every effort is made to list the abstracts in the same order as the pieces are listed above (generally by most recent publication). The list developed here is listed chronologically in reverse-order, to show the conceptual development and research foundation in this growing field. We kindly request that any individuals interested in adding to this wiki do so by following the guidelines we have established.

Peer Reviewed Articles: 

Books:

Chapters:

Dissertations, Theses, and Other Works: 

Articles in Major Newspapers and Periodicals:

Websites:

Article Abstracts: 

Leon, N. (2014). Developing intercultural competence by participating in intensive intercultural service-learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 20(1), 17-30.

This quasi-experimental study investigates the effects of an intensive intercultural service-learning program on the intercultural competence of undergraduate students by utilizing pre- and post-course assessments of intercultural competence as measured by the cultural intelligence (Van Dyne, Koh, & Ang, 2008) and intercultural sensitivity (Chen & Starosta, 2000) scales. The intercultural service-learning course utilized The $100 SolutionTM model with immigrant and refugee families. It was implemented in treatment sections (n =52) of a general education course on cultural diversity in the U.S. Comparison sections (n = 118) of the same course implemented the same curriculum without the service-learning experience. Statistical analysis confirmed that service-learning had a significant positive effect on students’ intercultural competence, particularly their intercultural strategy and action, although not on their intercultural knowledge, motivation, or sensitivity. The investment of time and effort required to implement high-quality, intensive, intercultural service-learning programs enhances some aspects of students’ intercultural competence.

Handler, R. (2013). Cultural Anthropology. American Anthropological Association, 28(2), 181-203.

Like most disciplinary scholars, anthropologists have been reluctant to reorganize their undergraduate programs to speak directly to student concerns. Yet, students are oriented, both intellectually and proto-professionally, to issues like global development, about which anthropologists have much to teach. This article examines student assumptions about development and about the interdisciplinary knowledge they think they need to understand it. I outline a critical pedagogy to respond to student ideas about development. I then sketch the cultural assumptions and bureaucratic structures that work to marginalize interdisciplinary programs. I conclude by suggesting ways anthropologists could adapt their undergraduate programs to “colonize” new curricular territories frequently defined in interdisciplinary terms. [interdisciplinarity, development, globalization, liberal arts curriculum]

Mather, P., Karbley, M., & Yamamoto, M. (2012). Identity matters in a short-term, international service-learning program. Journal of College & Character, 13(1)

This study explores the role that identity and the identity development process play in a short-term, international service-learning experience. Employing narrative inquiry, two of the co-authors, student participants in a 2-week service-learning program in Honduras, describe and interpret their service-learning experience in the context of life experiences that preceded the service-learning program. An emphasis is placed upon the ways that the students’ multiple identities and personal histories interact with the people, places, and ideas they encountered abroad. Findings are interpreted against the research and scholarship on intercultural competency and support the notion that student participants in international service-learning are exposed to experiences that lead to valuable extrospection and introspection and that foster complex understandings of self and ideology.

Nelson, E. D., & Klak, T. (2012). Equity in International Experiential Learning: Assessing Benefits to Students and Host Communities. PRISM: A Journal of Regional Engagement, 1(2), 105-129.

This research uses participation observation and other qualitative methods to evaluate whether faculty-led short-term study abroad programs can successfully carry out responsible “fair trade”, and thereby substantially benefit not only students but also the host  communities. The research draws insight by comparing two experiential learning courses taught in South African and Dominica. Result suggest that student benefit in very transformative ways in both courses, applying sustainability and development studies concept to real-life service and hands-on learning in cross-cultural situations. The Dominica course yields more host community benefits, however, because of the instructors’ long-term commitments to reciprocal partnership and equitable engagement. The paper concludes with recommendations for enhancing the impacts of short-term study abroad on students and, especially, on their host communities.

Anderson, P., & Lawton, L. (2011). Intercultural development: study abroad vs. on-campus studyFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21, 86-108.

The article presents a study which aimed to determine the intercultural development between study abroad and on-campus study. The researchers conducted a study with pre-post assessment of students in junior-level, business course, semester-length study abroad program, and a parallel pre-post assessment of students enrolled in two on-campus courses, a business and liberal arts, the same level using different instruments. Results showed little relationship and further research is suggested.

Dvorak, A., Christiansen, L., Fischer, N., Underhill, J. (2011). A necessary partnership: study abroad and sustainability in higher education. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21, 143-166.

The last two decades have seen institutions of higher education put increasing emphasis on both internationalizing their institutions and making them more sustainable. While laudable in their own right, there are contradictions and tensions between these goals, in particular when the carbon emissions involved in international activities like study abroad are considered. But there is also potential synergy between these goals. In this article, the authors explore two case studies of programs abroad that seriously engaged both the contradictions and opportunities inherent in the idea of sustainable international education. The first examines environmental politics and ecology in New Zealand and the Cook Islands and the second compares sustainable urban practices in Canada and the United States. Based on the lessons learned from these case studies, the authors argue that partnership between internationalization and sustainability efforts is necessary to help institutions of higher learning become both global and “green.” To that effect, the authors discuss specific and concrete ways to “green” study abroad courses throughout this article, particularly within the two case studies and in their concluding discussion of strategies for international educators, faculty, and higher education administrators. (Contains 2 notes.)

Fine, J., & McNamara, K. (2011). Community redefined: school leaders moving from autonomy to global interdependence through short-term study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21, 254-274.

In times of increased global interdependence, producing inter-culturally competent school leaders who can engage in informed, ethical decision-making when confronted with problems that involve a diversity of perspectives is becoming an urgent leadership priority. Helping school leaders form and internalize a global perspective requires today’s leadership preparation programs to assist future leaders in developing the capacity to think with complexity taking into account multiple cultural perspectives. Yet, while an understanding of cultural patterns, social stratification mobility, principles of human development, and racial dynamics are often cited as markers of successful student preparation for leadership for global interdependence, these learning outcomes are often poorly defined and not well integrated into the curriculum for educational leadership. Study abroad, the primary mechanism by which students experience foreign cultures, has become a seminal vehicle for global learning. Education abroad has become an increasingly important educational program experience in global learning and development, intercultural competence, intercultural maturity, and intercultural sensitivity. This article presents a framework for how to use global learning to develop in today’s educational leaders the conceptualization and disposition to bring about the revolutionary changes that eliminate marginalizing practices in schools. By providing a global framework to guide this development, tomorrow’s educational leaders will be provided with the learning they need to address the problems they will face in the future. Such a strategy aims to revitalize educational leadership preparation programs and increase student engagement by showing the relevance of global knowledge to education’s most urgent social, ethical, and civic challenges. (Contains 3 tables and 4 charts.)

Harrison, J., & Brower, H. (2011). The Impact of Cultural Intelligence and Psychological Hardiness on Homesickness among Study Abroad StudentsFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21,41-62.

Over the last decade the number of students studying abroad has increased 150% to more than a quarter of a million. The programs in which these students participate are no longer seen as simply a campus extension of academic exercise, but as an overall educational experience that develops holistic life skills in the participants. Through their sojourns, students develop, among other traits, global competency, defined as a tolerance for ambiguity, intellectual flexibility, and an ease of conducting affairs in multicultural contexts. Because of the growth and impact of study abroad experiences, it is important to identify and evaluate factors contributing to students’ success. The literature on international job assignments identifies psychological adjustment as a vital construct underlying the success of expatriate employee experiences. Furthermore, personality characteristics or stable personal traits are considered among the most important factors affecting the psychological adjustment of expatriate employees, and thus their success. Two of these traits that are especially appropriate in the study of successful cross-cultural adjustment are cultural intelligence and psychological hardiness. In this article, the authors introduce these constructs and present a rationale for predictions about their impact on successful psychological adjustment for study abroad participants. First, the authors examine the construct of cultural intelligence in the study abroad context. This construct has been defined and introduced in the business literature but the authors were unable to locate discussions or tests of it in study abroad experiences. Therefore, they extend the understanding of the construct looking at its predictive power in the context of university students studying abroad. They then describe the proposed relationship between psychological hardiness and cultural intelligence. Finally, they extend insight into an important student outcome: psychological adjustment as measured by homesickness. Such adjustment is an indicator of the success of the study abroad experience and student development. (Contains 4 tables.)

Jones, S.R., Robbins, C.K., & LePeau, L.A. (2011). Negotiating border crossing: Influences of social identity on service-learning outcomes. >Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 17(2). 27-42.

This article presents the results of a narrative case study exploring the influences of social identity on the outcomes associated with a short-term immersion program focused on HIV/AIDS. Presented in the form of contextual, individual, and shared narratives, results suggest that participants crossed developmental, interpersonal, and cultural borders. Further, these “border crossings” facilitated powerful learning experiences that were inextricably tied to the context of HIV/AIDS. The findings of this study offer implications for educators interested in promoting developmental and civic outcomes through service-learning.

Kenney, L (2011).  First City, Anti-City: Cain, Heterotopia, and Study Abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 20, 1-16.

A discussion of the city’s relation to study abroad provides an opportunity to insert a theoretical element into the pedagogy of the profession.Specifically, the author proposes to introduce the Foucauldian concepts of “genealogy” and “heterotopia” to the idea of the “city,” and in turn apply those same terms to the place of the city in the study abroad experience. Then, turning from Michel Foucault as “philosopher of space” to Paul Virilio, “philosopher of time,” the author demonstrates the interplay between Foucault’s heterotopia and Virilio’s “anti-city,” showing how study abroad in the contemporary, globalized city requires distinct programmatic changes to the (s)pace of education abroad.

Merrill, M., & Frost, C. (2011). Internationalizing social work education: models, methods, and meaningsFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21, 189-210.

In her 2008 book, International Social Work: Professional Action in an Interdependent World, Lynne Healy writes, “The student is most likely to find a field experience that provides exactly what the school requires if he or she stays home” (349). In other words, international and intercultural learning requires flexibility, openness, and a willingness to adjust – on the part of the school as well as the student. Yet in social work, as in other professions requiring licensure and preparing professionals to work with vulnerable populations, flexibility is not simply a matter of convincing a department head or registrar to substitute one course for another or to waive a requirement. Becoming a professional social worker requires meeting a set of mandated requirements in a way that becoming a historian or a sociologist does not. Although social workers are encountering increasing amounts of social and cultural difference in their daily practice, certification in the profession nevertheless does – and should – require a known set of competencies and skills. How, then, are social work students to have international and intercultural experiences, without extending the length of their training?

Mikal, J. P. (2011). When social support fits into your luggage: online support seeking and its effects on the traditional study abroad experienceFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21, 17-40.

Acculturative stress puts the goals of study abroad at risk. Students suffering from heightened stress levels may experience decreased academic performance, increased depression and feelings of hostility toward the target culture. While social support has been shown to decrease the deleterious effects of high stress levels – during study abroad students face barriers to communication rendering support networks more difficult to access. While Internet technology has demonstrated effectiveness in the communication of social support, little is known about online support seeking while abroad. Using a sequential mixed methods approach, two empirical studies were conducted to determine how students are using the Internet to access informational, embedded and socio-emotional support during study abroad. In the first empirical study, four two-hour-long focus groups generated nearly 200 pages of text which were coded using a combination of bottom-up, and top-down techniques. Findings suggest that students are using the Internet as a transitional device, to create opportunities for face-to-face interactions, and to fulfill personal and professional obligations back in the home country. The second empirical study consisted of the design, validation, distribution and analysis of an original survey instrument. The survey was distributed to over 1000 students, with a nearly 20% response rate. Findings from this study supported the notion of the Internet as a transitional device, but suggested that the majority of students’ online correspondents were co-nationals in both the home and host cultures. The dissertation concludes with an in depth discussion of theoretical implications, as well as recommendations for study abroad students and program administrators.

Molony, J. (2011).  Curricular and extra-curricular programs supporting improved international learning mobility experiences: an emerging trend in Australia’sFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21, 211-235.

International learning mobility is a strategic and operational priority for both the federal government and the majority of universities in Australia. Dating back over a decade, successive governments have stressed the public good to be derived from having an increased proportion of students participating in mobility programs. It is seen as contributing to the nation’s competitiveness through a more globally competent cohort and a more globally engaged higher education sector. Strategic planning among universities with very few exceptions makes specific or indirect reference to the importance of learning mobility and both government and institutions have continued to invest in growing the program. This investment has included significant annual increases in scholarships and travel grants that act as a critical catalyst in getting the students mobile as well as adding the administration required to support a growing program.

Morgan, J. (2011). The Constructive Marginal of Moby-Dick: Ishmael and the Developmental Model of Intercultural SensitivityFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21, 1-16.

Cultural sensitivity theory is the study of how individuals relate to cultural difference. Using literature to help students prepare for study abroad, instructors could analyze character and trace behavior through a model of cultural sensitivity. Milton J. Bennett has developed such an instrument, The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), which measures behavior from ethnocentric to ethnorelative. Cultural sensitivity research has proven time and again that Bennett’s DMIS is a strong model after over thirty years. In a 2003 article in “The International Journal of Intercultural Relations,” R. Michael Paige and others analyze a new model, co-created by Bennett, called the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI). It is based on Bennett’s old model. The IDI suggests different stages of development but is so similar to the DMIS that the research shows the strength of Bennett’s DMIS, which the author uses with Herman Melville’s “Moby-Dick” to chart Ishmael’s cultural sensitivity. The simplicity of the DMIS may very well help attest for its longevity in the field. The DMIS can be seen as a chart, beginning with ethnocentric behavior. Ethnocentrism moves through three stages, starting with denial, in which the individual appears to even deny the existence of one who is culturally different. Next is the defensive stage. Here, the individual will characteristically denigrate those culturally different than himself. In the final stage of ethnocentrism, minimization, the individual, when gauging one culturally different than himself, will only embrace those characteristics that he also has. The next three stages encompass the ethnorelative phases of cultural sensitivity and are initially marked by the individual’s acceptance of difference, followed by his adaptation of certain cultural aspects not native to himself. The last stage is integration, which can be taken ad infinitum, producing a constructive marginal, one who has such a diverse ethnic makeup that he only fits in with other constructive marginals. This process also describes Ishmael, the weary, wayworn wanderer who constructs his own identity in Melville’s American classic, “Moby-Dick.”

Ritsema, M., Knecht, B., & Kruckemeyer,K. (2011). Learning to Unlearn: Transformative Education in the CityFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 20, 87-102.

The purpose of study abroad is for students to learn other ways of living in and understanding the world, usually through a process of immersion.Most study abroad programs focus on cultural immersion characterized by learning a language and living in one place for a semester or two.The IHP Cities program aspires to urban immersion, teaching students how to read a city by gaining an understanding of the systems and rhythms of cities that make them productive for large numbers of people. Study abroad is well known for being a transforming experience for students. Studying the city has the power to make that transformation both personal and societal, as students examine how everyday lives, including their own, are affected by the forces, systems and circumstances of cities.Our objective in the IHP Cities program is for students to get at the heart of how cities work, and thus how these students, in their personal and professional lives, can influence the future of cities.

Wagenknecht, T. (2011). Developing Intercultural Competence through Facilitating the City as a Learning Experience. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 20, 137- 153.

The author first elaborates on experiential learning theory and the philosophy of experiential education as two concepts that highlight complex teacher-student-environment reciprocities.Second, the discussion of an interview, read against other interviews and the theory of experiential learning, will demonstrate the challenges of designing and conducting experiential learning situations.The ensuing discussion of best practices in mediating urban cultures will validate the city’s capacity for experiential learning and reveal solutions for the intercultural hurdles involved in teaching “experientially.” Ultimately, the author argues that more effort is required to close the gap between the theoretical and practical considerations of the experiential teaching of urban cultures in order to safeguard positive learning outcomes and increase the efficiency of teaching and learning in study abroad courses.

Franklin, K. (2010). Long-term Career Impact and Professional Applicability of the Study Abroad ExperienceFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 19, 169-191.

Of the few studies that focus on long-term outcomes, only three address professional development. Each asks two quintessential questions: 1) Do alumni gravitate toward working in an international capacity, and 2) Was career direction influenced by their experience. The Institute for the International Education of Students (IES) longitudinal study examining the long-term impact of study abroad on 50 years worth of study abroad alumni stands out as groundbreaking in the field. This comprehensive study’s primary purpose was to determine how the experience impacted the participants’ lives years later. Findings indicate that respondents’ study abroad experiences had a large impact on their personal lives, and a lesser effect on their careers, and political and social views. The portion of the study that covered professional development demonstrated a significant impact on career path. 48 percent of survey respondents worked or volunteered in an international capacity at some point since college, 62 percent of participants had their career direction ignited by their study abroad experience, and 77 percent acquired skills abroad that influenced their career path. Characteristics such as program duration, program type, and internship participation varied outcomes.

Miller-Perrin, C., & Thompson, D. (2010). The Development of Vocational Calling in College Students: A Preliminary Study on the Effects of an International Living and Learning ExperienceFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 19, 87-104.

The current study is a response to the call for greater understanding of the interior aspects of student development, as bound to significant experiences in the life of the college student, particularly the increasingly popular experience of study abroad.Our approach to gaining this understanding is to provide empirical evidence of the ways in which an international living and learning experience significantly enhances college student development in the areas of identity, faith, and vocational calling. Accordingly, our research hypothesis is that students who participate in study abroad programs experience significantly greater changes in faith, vocational calling, and identity development than do students who do not participate in such programs.

Morais, D. B., & Ogden A. C. (2010). Initial development and validation of the global citizenship scaleJournal of Studies in International Education.

 The purpose of this article is to report on the initial development of a theoretically grounded and empirically validated scale to measure global citizenship. The methodology employed is multi-faceted, including two expert face validity trials, extensive exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with multiple datasets, and a series of three small-group interviews utilizing nominal group technique to verify the scope of the global citizenship construct. The findings provide support for a three-dimensional Global Citizenship Scale that encompasses social responsibility, global competence, and global civic engagement. Global competence and global civic engagement are both strong dimensions of global citizenship, and each has three reliable sub-dimensions that add further refinement to the construct. Social responsibility proves to be a dimension of global citizenship with a less clearly defined structure. The Global Citizenship Scale and its conceptual framework have important implications for education abroad outcomes research and practice.

Bell, S., & Carlson, R. (2009). Motivations of community organizations for service learning. In R. Stoecker & E. Tryon (Eds.), The unheard voices: Community organizations and service learning (pp.19-37). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

In this chapter, the authors first explore the difference between volunteers and service learners and the extent that such differences matter to community organizations. Then, they examine the complexities of nonprofit staff motives to work with service learners through a discussion of the different types of motives that respondents expressed. While the authors classify four types of motives in this chapter, many organizations declared more than one motive or overlapping motives. These four motives are: the altruistic motive to educate the service learner; long-term motives for the sector and the organization; the capacity-building motive; and the higher education relationship motive. Lastly, they discuss how community organization staff balance their concerns about service-learning with their motivations to participate and ultimately decide whether or not to be a service-learning host.

Rexeisen, R., Anderson, P., Lawton, L., & Hubbard, A. (2008).  Study Abroad and Intercultural Development: A Longitudinal StudyFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Abroad, 17, 1-20.

While academic units often express a wide range of learning goals and objectives within the context of international study, the importance of intercultural development i s recognized by virtually all institutions. Broadly conceived, intercultural sensitivity helps people to live and work with people of diverse cultural backgrounds and this i n turn contributes to building essential leadership skills necessary for operating effectively i n an increasingly complex global environment. Tensions created as a consequence of the global war on terror have also drawn attention to the strategic value and overall importance of developing essential intercultural skills.

Savicki, V. (2007-2008).  Intercultural Development: Topics and SequencesFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 15, 111-126.

When people travel from their own home culture to a different culture, they experience variations not only in terms of scenery and societal arrangements, but also in terms of daily routines, interpersonal interactions, and expectations. Many differences are based on the divergence in underlying values and concerns of the home versus the host culture. On a day-to-day basis, events that reveal such differences may pose threats and lead to anxiety, confusion, anger, and depression. Conversely, they may pose challenges whose resolution can lead to feelings of mastery, excitement, appreciation for aspects of the host culture, and a clearer understanding of one’s home culture. The exposure and reactions to such events form the foundation of intercultural development. But what types of events are important to such development, and how do sojourners change their perspective about those events as they continue through the adjustment process? This article tracks reports of cultural events and topics deemed salient by university student sojourners over their semester of study abroad in an attempt to discover not only which topics were identified, but also the sequence in which the sojourners found those topics salient. Evidence for sequences of topic salience has implications for the education and support of sojourners both prior to departure, and during exposure to a new culture. The successful negotiation of the developmental processes in the study abroad experience can have long lasting effects for students. It is hoped that this research will increase the understanding of how to facilitate such positive development. Before reporting results of the current study, a brief review of relevant issues follows.

Butin, D. W. (2007). Justice-learning: Service-learning as justice-oriented education. Equity & Excellence in Education, 40(2), 177–183.

“Justice-learning’’ lies at the intersection of service-learning and social justice education. Specifically, I argue for a distinctive form of community-based learning (“anti-foundational service-learning’’) that fosters a justice-oriented framework (“anti-anti-social justice’’) that makes possible the questioning and disruption of unexamined and all-too often oppressive binaries of how we view the struggle toward equity in education. The linkage of service-learning and social justice education in this manner offers a “weak overcoming’’ that strengthens experiential learning toward justice while avoiding the dilution and radicalization faced by both movements. I, thus, trace the linkages between service learning and social justice education; explicate the potential of anti-foundational service-learning as a form of anti-antisocial justice; and draw out the potential and implication of this linkage for both service-learning and social justice education.

Basinger, N., & Bartholomew, K. (2006). Service-learning in nonprofit organizations: Motivations, expectations, and outcomes. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, Spring, pp. 15-26.

This article applies theories of giving from philanthropic studies to enhance understanding of service learning relationships between students and community partners. Focusing on the participation motivations, outcome expectations, and satisfaction levels of community partners who have recently completed work with service-learning students, the authors find that organizations and staff supervisors engaged in service-learning are motivated both by altruistic and self-serving factors. Staff supervisors and community partner organizations are motivated to give time, training, and a laboratory to enhance student learning. In return, community partners expect and generally receive valuable service from the students. The results suggest that the service-learning relationship be viewed as reciprocal in nature, as with other donor-recipient situations.

McAllister, L., Whiteford, G., Hill, B., Thomas, N., & Fitzgerald, M. (2006). Reflection in intercultural learning: Examining the international experience through a critical incident approachReflective Practice, 7(3), 367-381.

Professionals are increasingly being required to work in diverse, multicultural environments. Accordingly, skills in intercultural practice are a prerequisite to professional knowledge and competence. Ensuring that these are developed is increasingly part of the core business of universities. Currently, however, there is a gap in the knowledge base as to the learning processes that underpin the acquisition of such intercultural understandings, knowledge and competence. This article represents an attempt to address this gap through describing some of the findings of a qualitative, interdisciplinary study undertaken by the authors with students at Charles Sturt University, Australia. The purpose of the study was to illuminate key processes in the development of cultural knowledge and intercultural competence through exploring the experiences of education and health professional students undertaking fieldwork and study in Indonesia and Vietnam. In this article we illustrate and discuss a continuum of learning to be interculturally competent, grounded in the data, and conclude with a series of recommendations for future practice and research.

Chieffo, L., & Griffiths, L. (2004). Large-scale assessment of student attitudes after a short-term study abroad programFrontiers: The International Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 165-177.

In this study, the research team consciously chose to measure perceived learning outcomes rather than actual outcomes, which would have required pre- and post-tests and student identification numbers. While a study of this sort cannot measure change, it can measure perceived impact, and with a suitable control group it can measure such impact compared to another population. In this case, the data clearly demonstrate that the students who spent the month abroad were more confident in their levels intercultural awareness and functional knowledge than their peers who remained on campus. Additionally, they engaged in more internationally-minded activities and described their learning in much broader and non-academic categories than their counterparts. Future studies may focus on subgroups of students (for example particular majors or particular program sites) and use traditional pre- and post-treatment instruments to examine in detail some of the specific issues left unresolved by this first-time investigation.

Farrell, P., & Suvedi, M. (2003). Studying abroad in Nepal: Assessing impactFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 9, 175-188.

The findings of this study provide some evidence that students’ lives are impacted by their study abroad experiences in specific ways. The impact on the students focuses on those survey responses receiving high mean scores as they relate to the program’s learning objectives. The programs’ key learning objectives focused on global perspective, professional development, academics, and personal development. The highest mean scores were on questions related to the students’ understanding, curiosity and appreciation of Nepal, other cultures, international issues, and human differences. The data show that students not only learned about Nepal, but also came away with a deep awareness of international and social issues, especially in the case of developing countries. Students became aware of poverty, multi-national business, government, economics and health, all of which are key aspects of the program’s learning objectives.

Walsh, L. V. (2003). International service learning in midwifery and nursing educationJournal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 48(6), 449-54.

The health of women and childbearing families is a global concern that must be addressed if we are to be successful in ensuring healthy families. Numerous strategies have been suggested to increase appreciation for the global factors that influence maternal and child health and the overall health status of a community. Inclusion of cultural content in courses offered in educational programs and provision of clinical learning experiences in diverse communities have commonly been used in midwifery and nursing education. This article reviews the concept of service learning and its application in a course that provides an opportunity for students to participate in an international immersion program. Evaluation of the course found that participants increased their knowledge and skills in providing reproductive health care, developed appreciation for the knowledge and skills of traditional birth attendants, and expanded their world view of women and families in communities.

Annette, J. (2002). Service learning in an international context.  Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, (8), 83-94.

Service learning is an important form of learning in higher education in the United States and the United Kingdom, and increasingly in universities internationally. Service learning is defined as an experiential learning program where students learn through engaging in service in partnership with a local community. It involves reflective learning activities which enable a student to develop key skills and capabilities, and a greater sense of civic awareness and active citizenship. The experience should be of sufficient length to enable students to benefit fully from it, and they must be challenged to be reflective and to link their learning to their college curriculum.

Bringle, R. G., & Hatcher, J. A. (2002). Campus-community partnerships: The terms of engagementJournal of Social Issues, 58(3) 503-516.

The emergence of service–learning in higher education and the renewed emphasis on community involvement presents colleges and universities with opportunities to develop campus–community partnerships for the common good. These partnerships can leverage both campus and community resources to address critical issues in local communities. Campus–community partnerships are a series of interpersonal relationships between (a) campus administrators, faculty, staff, and students and (b) community leaders, agency personnel, and members of communities. The phases of relationships (i.e., initiation, development, maintenance, dissolution) and the dynamics of relationships (i.e., exchanges, equity, distribution of power) are explored to provide service–learning instructors and campus personnel with a clearer understanding of how to develop healthy campus–community partnerships.

Arthur, N. (2001). Using critical incidents to investigate cross-cultural transitionsInternational Journal of Intercultural relations, 25(1), 41-53.

The process of cross-cultural transition is of interest to researchers who attempt to uncover factors that lead to sojourner adjustment and cross-cultural effectiveness. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the perceived stressors and coping strategies of Canadian post-secondary students during a 7-week cross-cultural Seminar program in Vietnam. Using a critical incidents methodology, the study tracked both the common and unique experiences of students. Specific critical incidents were collected from students at six time points regarding experiences that were stressful, selected coping strategies, use of social support, shifting views of self and perspectives about international development. Results from the study are discussed with suggestions for pre-departure training programs and the use of critical incidents as a tool for understanding cross-cultural transitions.

Vincenti, V. B. (2001). Exploration of the relationship between international experiences and the interdisciplinary work of universityJournal of Studies in International Education, 5(1), 42-63.

This article reviews the published literature to obtain a better understanding about how international and, more generally, intercultural experiences might facilitate the development of interdisciplinary faculty work in higher education. More specifically, it examines characteristics of interdisciplinary individuals, benefits of international/intercultural experiences to travelers, the qualities needed for intercultural effectiveness, university disciplines as cultures, and how the relationship between international/intercultural experience is similar to interdisciplinary experience and competence. Finally, it addresses questions for future research.

Astin, A. W., Vogelgesang, L. J., Ikeda, E. K., & Yee, J. A. (2000). How service learning affects students. Los Angeles, CA: Higher Education Research Institute UCLA.

This study explores the comparative effects of service learning and community service on the cognitive and affective development of college undergraduates, and enhances our understanding of how learning is enhanced by service. The report includes results of a longitudinal study of a national sample of students at diverse colleges and universities, and a qualitative study of students and faculty who participated in service learning at the subset of these institutions.

Grusky, S. (2000). International service learning: A critical guide from an impassioned advocate. American Behavioral Scientist, 43(5), 858-867.

International service-learning programs burst with potential and stumble with the weight of contradictions left unattended. Without thoughtful preparation, orientation, program developments and the encouragement of study, as well as critical analysis and reflection, the programs can easily become small theaters that recreate historic cultural misunderstandings and simplistic stereotypes and replay, on a more intimate scale, the huge disparities in income and opportunity that characterize North-South relations today. Integrated into a well-developed program, international service learning can fulfill its potential as a transformational experience for students informing subsequent study and career choices. This article identifies seven loaded issues in international service learning that, if addressed with creativity and forethought, can provide important opportunities for critical analysis, study, and reflection and in the process bring international programs closer to achieving their transformational potential.

Hartman, D., & Rola, G. (2000). Going global with service learningMetropolitan Universities, 11(1), 15-23.

Discusses the advantages of international service learning programs in developing students’ language and cross-cultural communication skills, as well as their concept of the world as an interdependent system. Notes characteristics and outcomes of successful international service learning programs, such as the program at the University of North Texas.

Kraft, R. J. & Dwyer, J. F. (2000). Service and outreach: A multicultural and international dimension. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 6(1), 41-47.

The authors believe, with Benjamin Barber, that service to the neighborhood and to the nation are not the gift of altruists, but rather the duty of free men and women whose freedom is itself wholly dependent on the assumptions of political responsibilities (Barber 1992). Given the global world in which we live, however, we add the importance of international service to that of the neighborhood and nation. The authors, both professors at the University of Colorado-Boulder when this article was written, have spent considerable time in Africa and on other continents, working with schools and universities on the improvement of instruction in mathematics and other curricular areas. They detail some of those experiences, along with information about the University’s nationally recognized service-learning program, the International and National Volunteer Service and Training (INVST) program. Service-learning and volunteer activities have been part of our pedagogical repertoire for over three decades, and during that time we have been impressed by the impact of these multicultural and international experiences on not only ourselves, but also our students. Classroom learning has its place, but for powerful transforming learning, nothing has compared to the impact of these experiences on the life and learning of our students. In recent years, students have participated in “alternative spring breaks,” in addition to other international service-learning experiences.

Gaw, K. F. (1999). Reverse culture shock in students returning from overseasInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24(1), 83-104.

Little is known about the reverse culture shock experience of Americans who have lived abroad. Many of these Americans are dependent youth who, after completing high school abroad, return to the United States for college; reverse culture shock may impact the academic experiences of these returnees. This study (n=66) examined the relationships between reverse culture shock and personal problems experienced in college, willingness to seek help, and types of services used. This study revealed that returnees experiencing a high level of reverse culture shock were more likely to report more personal adjustment and shyness problems or concerns than were returnees experiencing a low level of reverse culture shock. Willingness to see a counselor for personal problems and concerns was not necessarily related to one’s level of reverse culture shock. Finally, a negative correlation was observed with regard to reverse culture shock and student support service usage–as reverse culture shock increased, service usage decreased.

Dunlap, M. R. (1998). Voices of students in multicultural service-learning settingsMichigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 5, 58-67.

This article presents the voices of young college students who were engaged in community-based service-learning in multicultural settings. The journals of these 30 child development students were content-analyzed for recurring themes. Three of the themes that emerged in the journals involved students 1) articulating their own approaches or philosophies regarding racial issues, 2) expressing their concerns regarding specific multi-cultural or race-related incidents, and 3) discussing the resources they relied upon to put their multicultural experiences into a larger perspective. The emerging themes are presented and offered in the students’ own words. Suggestions for supporting students’ multicultural service-learning experiences are discussed.

Crabtree, R. D. (1998). Mutual empowerment in cross-cultural participatory development and service learning: Lessons in communication and social justice from projects in El Salvador and NicaraguaJournal of Applied Communication Research, 6(2), 182-209.

Two cross‐cultural participatory development and servicelearning projects conducted in El Salvador and Nicaragua illustrate a model of mutual empowerment formed from the unification of the three related literatures on developmental communication, intercultural communication and cross‐cultural adaptation, and service learning. The essay presents an argument for and illustration of communication and social justice research and action that is grounded in long‐term, international participatory projects that empower community members, broaden sojourners’ minds and personal growth, and result in increased communication skills and “education in citizenship” that empowers participants in both the learning context and the broader socio‐political context. The essay includes an in‐depth description of the projects, an overview of the continuing assessment research, and a consideration of ongoing concerns about project design, communication research, and ethics.

Wilkinson, S. (1998). On the nature of immersion during Study Abroad: Some Participant PerspectivesFrontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad. 4(2), 121-138.

What happens during a sojourn in a different cultural and linguistic environment? What kinds of contacts do students have within such a context? And perhaps most importantly, how do the participants themselves perceive these encounters, particularly in view of their expectations for immersion?

Allen, D., & Young, M. (1997). From tour guide to teacher: Deepening cross-cultural competence through international experience-based education. Journal of Management Education, 21(2), 168-189.

Research suggests that cross-cultural competence can best be developed through face-to-face contact with other cultures. In light of this, many universities seek ways to provide strong, cross-cultural exposure to students. The authors describe an innovative 8-day sojourn to Mexico, in which students and faculty experience cross-cultural immersion through activity-based learning. Design issues and key earnings for educators who seek to develop or enhance cross-cultural management education programs are discussed. Feedback from student and faculty participants is included.

Ward, C. & Chang, W. C. (1997). “Cultural fit”: A new perspective on personality and sojourner adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural relations, 21(4), 525-533.

One hundred and thirty-nine Americans resident in Singapore participated in the research which investigated the influence of ”cultural fit” on sojourner adjustment. Subjects completed questionnaires including measurements of extraversion, psychological adjustment (depression) and sociocultural adaptation (social difficulty). To assess ”cultural fit” discrepancy scores were calculated on the absolute differences between subjects’ extraversion scores and host culture norms. Correlational analyses indicated that extraversion per se was unrelated to either psychological or sociocultural adjustment; however, as predicted, larger discrepancies in extraversion between subjects and members of the host culture were associated with higher levels of depression (p<.01). Discrepancy scores were also analyzed in conjunction with a median split, dividing subjects into low and high discrepancy groups. T-tests further confirmed that the large discrepancy group experienced more symptoms of depression (p<.01). There were no significant differences, however, in the amount of social difficulties experienced by low and high discrepancy groups.

Anderson, L. E. (1994). A new look at an old construct: Cross-cultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural relations, 18(3), 293-328.

The dominant picture of cross-cultural adaptation still, with some exceptions, features a reified process of recovering from culture shock or culturerelated stress. The purpose of this article is to put cross-cultural adaptation back into perspective, reconnecting it with its roots in sociopsychological adjustment theory. Cross-cultural adaptation represents in essence a common process of environmental adaptation. Far from being culture specific, “culture” shock is simply a frustration reaction syndrome. A model of cross-cultural adaptation based on sociopsychological adjustment theory and applied to the findings of decades of cross-cultural investigations is presented. It holds that all adjustment is a cyclical and recursive process of overcoming obstacles and solving problems in present-environment transactions. It is the individual who chooses how to respond, and in so doing creates his or her own adjustment. Cultural adaptation is a continuum. Sojourners exhibit a broad range of degrees, modes, and levels of adaptation. Adaptation is also more than the sum of the subadjustments that compose it. Working one’s way into a culture can produce fundamental changes in the sojourner commensurate with a process of resocialization. When, in the adaptation process, socialization is extensive or adjustments are particularly difficult, sojourners can be “reborn” by the experience.

 Taylor, E. (1994a). Intercultural competency: A transformative learning process.  Adult Education Quarterly, 44(3), 154-174.

Intercultural competency is an adaptive capacity based on an inclusive and integrative world view which allows participants to effectively accommodate the demands of living in a host culture. Resea cultural competency over the last 25 years has ted to focus on identifying characteristics of participants indicative of successful intercultural experiences. Little if any research has approached the concept of intercultural competency from a learning perspective tat is, how participants learn to become interculturally competent The field of adult eda offers transformative learning theory that seems to partially explain this process. This study had a two-fold purpose: (a) to delineate the learning process of intercultural competency, and (b) to explore the theory of perspective transformation as a possible explanation for the learning and changes participants experience. The design of the study was qualitative, involving in-depth interviews with 12 interculturally competent participants. Analysis of the data resulted in a model illustrating the learning process of becoming interculturally competent The second part of the study revealed that Mezirow’stheoryofperspectivetransformationpartiallyexplainstheleaningprocess of intercultural competency. While both models share similar properties, this research extends our understanding of the theory of perspective transformation, particularly in the area of critical reflection.

Taylor, E. (1994b). A learning model for becoming interculturally competentInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18(3), 389-408.

The world is becoming increasingly interdependent with nation states struggling to work together and share limited resources. There is a growing demand for individuals who are interculturally competent, those who can work and live effectively with others in different cultures. Most of the research on intercultural competency over the last 25 years has focused on prediction, by identifying characteristics of sojourners indicative of successful intercultural experiences. Little if any research has taken a learning perspective—how it is that sojourners learn to become interculturally competent. Understanding the learning process is essential to developing more effective education programs and identifying factors that can aid the sojourner during his or her intercultural experience. The field of adult education offers transformative learning theory that could act as a model for this process. This essay illustrates a significant link between intercultural competency and the theory of transformative learning, in an effort to shed light on the learning process of becoming interculturally competent.

Ward, C. & Kennedy, A. (1994). Acculturation strategies, psychological adjustment, and sociocultural competence during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural relations, 18(3), 329-343.

The research examined host national and co-national identification in relation to sociocultural and psychological adaptation during cross-cultural transition. Ninety-eight sojourners (employees of a New Zealand organization and their spouses) completed questionnaires that included measurements of acculturation (host and co-national identification), social difficulty, and depression. Host and co-national identity scores were subjected to a median split, and 2 × 2 analyses of variance were performed; in this case, the interaction term represented four acculturation strategies: integration, separation, assimiliation, and marginalisation. Results revealed two main effects. Subjects with strong host national identification experienced less sociocultural adjustment difficulties (p < .001), whereas those with strong co-national identification evinced less psychological adjustment problems (p < .001). Interaction effects were also observed. For sociocultural adaptation (p < .05), the greatest amount of social difficulty was experienced by respondents who endorsed a separatist position, the least by assimilated and integrated subjects, and an intermediate level by the marginalized. For psychological adjustment (p < .04), integrated subjects experienced less depression than assimilated ones; however, there were no other significant differences among the four groups. The findings are discussed with reference to the quadri-modal model of acculturation attitudes and the conceptual distinction of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during cross-cultural transition.

Carson, J. S., & Widaman, K. F. (1988). The effects of study abroad during college on attitudes toward other culturesInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations12, 1-17.

The purpose of this investigation was to assess changes in attitudes and perceptions toward international understanding by university students who had spent a year of study abroad at a European university. Using a quasi-experimental design, a questionnaire was sent to 450 students who spent their junior year abroad and 800 students who remained on their home campus during their junior year. The response rates were 67% and 65% respectively. The questionnaire asked for retrospective views before the junior year as well as for views presently held. In addition, subjects were queried concerning shifts in attitudes during the junior year. Factor analytic and analysis of variance procedures were used to analyze the data. Consistent with the main hypotheses guiding the study, the results indicated increased levels of international political concern, crosscultural interest, and cultural cosmopolitanism for the study abroad group. This group also reported more positive, yet also more critical views of the United States than did the comparison group. The results were discussed in terms of the general goals of international educational exchange programs.

Adler, P. (1975). The transitional experience: An alternative view of culture shockJournal of Humanistic Psychology, 15, 13-23.

Presents a model of the steps in the transitional experience (TE) (i.e., the active movement toward high self-awareness). Five phases of TE are analyzed, within a culture-shock paradigm, as a set of intensive situations in which the individual perceives and experiences other people in a distinctively new manner. Self-awareness is potentiated when the individual, in these situations, is confronted with the task of coping with the experiential validity of the notion that one’s behavior arises out of a complex of motivations and intentions that stem primarily from his/her own cultural vocabulary. The model offers potential frameworks for the development of training experiences that prepare people undergoing changes in lifestyle and for counseling strategies that are developmental rather than adjustive. Further implications of the proposed relationships between phases of TE, perceptions, emotions, and behavior are discussed.

Book Summaries:

Vande Berg, M., Paige, R. M., & Hemming Lou, K. (2012). Student learning abroad: What our students are learning, what they’re not, and what we can do about it. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publications, Llc.

A central purpose of this book is to question the claims commonly made about the educational benefits of study abroad.Traditional metrics of enrollment increases and student self-report, and practices of structural immersion, are being questioned as educators voice growing uncertainty about what students are or are not in fact learning abroad. This book looks into whether these criticisms are justified—and what can be done if they are.
The contributors to this book offer a counter-narrative to common views that learning takes place simply through students studying elsewhere, or through their enrolling in programs that take steps structurally to “immerse” them in the experience abroad.

Student Learning Abroad reviews the dominant paradigms of study abroad; marshals rigorous research findings, with emphasis on recent studies that offer convincing evidence about what undergraduates are or are not learning; brings to bear the latest knowledge about human learning and development that raises questions about the very foundations of current theory and practice; and presents six examples of study abroad courses or programs whose interventions apply this knowledge. This book provokes readers to reconsider long-held assumptions, beliefs and practices about teaching and learning in study abroad and to reexamine the design and delivery of their programs. In doing so, it provides a new foundation for responding to the question that may faculty and staff are now asking: What do I need to know, and what do I need to be able to do, to help my students learn and develop more effectively abroad?

Savicki, V. (2008). (Ed.). Developing intercultural competence and transformation: Theory, research, and application in international education. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Enrollments in international education programs are projected to grow exponentially as students, parents, and university personnel seek to prepare future leaders who can live and work effectively in a global environment. What do we know about the outcomes of such programs, and how can educators become more intentional about designing, and assessing, the impact of such courses? How can we help students achieve the intercultural growth and transformation that they may envision as they set forth on their international sojourn?International education provides opportunities for students to grow personally, and to learn in a rich and intense educational environment. The outcomes of such opportunities emphasize not only traditional academic competence, but also changes in motivations, attitudes, self-identity, and values. It is these latter, co-academic, concepts that are the focus of this book. Its goal is to give solid substance to the growth and transformation approach to study abroad. It defines the central concept of intercultural competence, sets it within the framework of transformative learning theory, and offers ideas and strategies for facilitating its development. In doing so, it goes far beyond traditional emphases on the achievement of such formal skills as foreign language acquisition or specific knowledge of course content in national literatures, arts, or history.This book provides study abroad educators with a theoretical framework and examples of practice to craft more meaningful activities that will make a long-term difference in the quality of student experiences, and set the stage for transformative change. If we plan to send a million students a year to study abroad within the decade, we need approaches to maximize student growth outcomes in an efficient and effective way.It is also relevant for anyone engaged in courses in adult education, college student services, comparative and international education, international business, intercultural relations, and service learning that involve study abroad, and that raise corresponding issues of curriculum design.

Geertz, C. “Thick description: Toward an interpretive theory of culture,” Culture: Critical Concepts in Sociology (2002): 173.

The history, various usages and different meanings of ‘Culture’ derive from diverse areas of study, including philosophy, critical aesthetics, literary criticism, anthropology, and sociology. These volumes introduce the reader to these multi-facets of the concept and the wide and often contradictory variety of interpretations that have been and continue to be placed on it. The diverse meanings and interpretations of the concept are also reflected in the interdisciplinary nature of the articles collected. The structure of the collection places culture within a history of ideas, and also enables the reader to review different arguments and perspectives on the topic.

Paige, R. M., Cohen A. D., Kappler, B., Chi, J. C., & Lassegard, J. P. (2002). Maximizing study abroad: A student’s guide to strategies for language and culture learning and use. University of Minnesota.

As a study abroad student, you’re not just a tourist – you are embarking on something much richer. This flexible guide provides specific strategies for improving your language and culture learning so your time spent abroad will be as meaningful and productive as you hope. The guide begins with three surveys to help you recognize how you currently learn language and culture. The remaining sections are filled with tools, creative activities, and advice you can use to enhance your culture and language learning. Use this guide as you prepare for study aboard, during your experience, and once you return – with a little bit of preparation, you can assure yourself you are doing all you can to maximize your study abroad experience.

Speck, B. W., & Carmical, B. H. (Eds.). (2002). Internationalizing Higher Education: Building Vital Programs on Campuses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Diversity is a buzz word in higher education, often characterized solely in ethnic or racial terms. Diversity, however, when properly understood, has a much wider scope; it can refer to cultural and linguistic diversity. Campuses can achieve greater diversity in the broadest sense by understanding how to internationalize higher education. This volume provides insights into how administrators, professors, and students can promote the internationalizing effort. Chapters are devoted to promoting the effort by explaining how to help students from other countries be successful in the U.S. classroom, how to provide opportunities for native students and professors to work and study overseas, how to develop exchange programs, and how to help non-native families adjust to U.S. culture. For those interested in how to internationalize higher education, this volume provides a wealth of practical advice.

Kim, Y. Y. (2001). Becoming intercultural: An integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This book looks at the movements of immigrants and refugees and the challenges they face as they cross cultural boundaries and strive to build a new life in an unfamiliar place. It focuses on the psychological dynamic underpinning of their adaptation process, how their internal conditions change over time, the role of their ethnic and personal backgrounds, and of the conditions of the host environment affecting the process. Addressing these and related issues, the author presents a comprehensive theory, or a “big picture,”of the cross-cultural adaptation phenomenon.

Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnam, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock. Philadelphia, PA: Routledge.

Crossing cultures can be a stimulating and rewarding adventure. It can also be a stressful and bewildering experience. This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Furnham and Bochner’s classic Culture Shock (1986) examines the psychological and social processes involved in intercultural contact, including learning new culture-specific skills, managing stress and coping with an unfamiliar environment, changing cultural identities and enhancing intergroup relations. The book describes the ABCs of intercultural encounters, highlighting Affective, Behavioural and Cognitive components of cross-cultural experience. It incorporates both theoretical and applied perspectives on culture shock and a comprehensive review of empirical research on a variety of cross-cultural travellers, such as tourists, students, business travellers, immigrants and refugees. Minimising the adverse effects of culture shock, facilitating positive psychological outcomes and discussion of selection and training techniques for living and working abroad represent some of the practical issues covered.

Cushner, K. (1998). Intercultural education from an international perspective: Commonalities and future prospects. In K. Cushner, International perspectives on intercultural education (pp.353-370). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

International Perspectives on Intercultural Education offers a comprehensive analysis of intercultural education activity as it is practiced in the countries of Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Romania, Spain, England, South Africa, Ghana, Nigeria, the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Chapters by key scholars and practitioners from these nations inform the reader of current educational practice related to diversity. Each author, responding to a common series of guiding questions, presents:

  • a brief description of the national educational system in her or his country;
  • descriptive data on demographics in these countries, including data on various subgroups and subcultures and their experiences with the mainstream educational system;
  • a discussion of the perceived obstacles to addressing intercultural issues in schools and solutions to overcoming these obstacles; and
  • a comprehensive analysis of intercultural information on how teacher preparation institutions address intercultural education at the present time.

An overall concern of each chapter author is how intercultural approaches can be employed to solve the difficulties faced by both individuals and schools while maintaining the cultural integrity of the child.

Denzin, N. (1997). Interpretive ethnography: Ethnographic practices for the 21st century. London: Sage.

As the world’s culture has become both postmodern and multinational, so too must ethnography. In this volume, Norman K Denzin examines the changes and sounds a call to transform ethnographic writing in a manner befitting a new age. The author ponders the prospects, problems, and forms of ethnographic interpretive writing in the twenty-first century. He argues cogently and persuasively that postmodern ethnography is the moral discourse of the contemporary world, and that ethnographers can and should explore new types of experimental texts, performance-based texts, literary journalism and narratives of the self to form a new ethics of inquiry.

McTaggart, R. (1997). Participatory action research: International contexts and consequences. SUNY Press.

In this book the authors tell their stories of action research in their own ways, and indeed, give expression to their own cultural positioning as they draw upon their extensive experience in the field and the academy. They write in terms of their own experience, but with a collective as well as individual purpose. Contributors describe the history of participatory action research, and identify its interpretations in the diverse cultural contexts of Colombia, India, Austria, Australia, Venezuela, USA, England, Spain, Thailand, and New Caledonia. Drawing on the fields of nursing, education, community development, land reform, popular education, agriculture, and mass media, the authors describe the development of democratic research practice in quite different institutional and cultural contexts. Teachers, social workers, managers, nurses, adult educators, and agricultural extension and community development workers will all find this collection of writings from key participatory action research practitioners useful and informative.

Van Mannen, J. (1988).Tales from the field: On writing ethnography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

For more than twenty years, John Van Maanen’s Tales of the Field has been a definitive reference and guide for students, scholars, and practitioners of ethnography and beyond. Originally published in 1988, it was the one of the first works to detail and critically analyze the various styles and narrative conventions associated with written representations of culture. This is a book about the deskwork of fieldwork and the various ways culture is put forth in print. The core of the work is an extended discussion and illustration of three forms or genres of cultural representation—realist tales, confessional tales, and impressionist tales. The novel issues raised in Tales concern authorial voice, style, truth, objectivity, and point-of-view. Over the years, the work has both reflected and shaped changes in the field of ethnography.

Bennett, M. (1986). Modes of cross-cultural training: conceptualizing cross-cultural training as education. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 179-196.The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for examining existing intercultural communication training models and to present a multidimensional approach for educating sojourners for experiential learning. The paper differentiates among, orientation, training and education by mapping the goals, the content, and the process approaches used in each. The Intercultural Programming Grid which emerges from this differentiation examines five major programming models based on three aspects which distinguish one model from another: the nature of the goals (cognitive, affective, behavioral), the nature of the content (culture general or culture specific), and the nature of the process (experiential or intellectual). The strengths and limitations of each model are discussed. A multidimensional model is proposed which integrates all the dimensions with the experiential learning cycle.

Geertz, C. (1973). (Ed.). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.

In The Interpretation of Cultures, the most original anthropologist of his generation moved far beyond the traditional confines of his discipline to develop an important new concept of culture. This groundbreaking book, winner of the 1974 Sorokin Award of the American Sociological Association, helped define for an entire generation of anthropologists what their field is ultimately about.